This region contains Sandakfu (3,636 metres)—the highest peak of the state. The State has international borders with Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan while it shares national States boundaries with Sikkim, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa. In its south lies the Bay of Bengal. The rainfall ranging between 1,200 mm to 1,700 mm. While the summer in the delta region is noted for excessive humidity, the western highlands experience a dry summer like Northern India, with the highest day temperature ranging from 38 °C to 45 °C. Winter (December–January) is mild over the plains with average minimum temperatures of 15 °C. The total population of the state is 8,01,76,197, out of which male 4,14,65,985 and female 38710212.
Except four districts namely Darjeeling, Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri and Purulia out of its 18 districts, West Bengal belongs to Lower Gangetic Plains region. From a phyto-geographic viewpoint, the southern part of West Bengal can be divided into two regions: the Gangetic plain and the littoral mangrove forests of the Sundarbans. The topography of the entire zone is nearly level to gently sloping. District wise the state is divided into five agro climatic zone. Such as Entire North Bengal (Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri & Cooch Behar), Gangetic alluvium ( N&S Dinajpur, Murshidabad, Nadia, Hugli, Haora, Birbhum , N & S 24 Parganas), Vindhyan family soil (Barddhaman, Murshidabad, Medinipur (W), Haora, Birbhum & West Dinajpur), Lateritic Red Soil( Birbhum, Barddhaman, Medinipur, Bankura, Puruliya, Malda, North & South Dinajpur).
Rice is the most important kharif crop, which presently accounts for 77% of the total rice area and 68% of total area under food grains in the State. In addition, wheat, pulses, mustard, groundnut, jute, sugarcane, potato, fruits, vegetables and flowers are cultivated. The overall cropping intensity of the zone is 162%.
Main source of irrigation is open/tube wells. The State is the leading producer of paddy and second largest producer of potato (30% of total potato production of the country). Agricultural land of the state is 5,465 thousand hectares. Farm power available in the state is 1.25 kW/ha. By and large, the farmers have adopted the mechanized ploughing and for this purpose they have relied mostly on the custom hiring of tractors. Though 33% of farmers have bullocks and ploughs, they mainly use bullocks for transportation of the crops. Only 10% farmers have their own tractors and power tillers; 40% of the farmers have diesel pump-sets and 24% farmers have their own electric pump-sets for irrigating their land. In some villages irrigation is provided solely by government operated mini deep-tube wells. In other cases the farmers mostly depend on privately owned shallow tube-well for irrigating their agricultural land. The sprayer and thresher are most extensively used and also owned more frequently by the farmers. Therefore there is vast scope of mechanization in every nook and corner in the field of agriculture. There has been increase in purchase and use of power tillers in West Bengal from last few years for paddy cultivation.