1.0 INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       Arunachal Pradesh

1.2       Assam

1.3       Manipur

1.4       Meghalaya

1.5       Mizoram

1.6       Nagaland

1.7       Tripura

 

 

1.1 Arunachal Pradesh

 

a) General Information:

Arunachal Pradesh attained its statehood on 20th February 1987. Arunachal Pradesh (Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains) is situated in the North-Eastern part of India with 83743 sq. km area and has a long international border with Bhutan to the west (160 km), China to the north and north-east (1,080 km) and Myanmar to the east (440 km). It is situated between latitude 26 30' N and 29 30 ' N and longitude 91 30' E and 97 30' E. Its main rivers are Siang, Kameng, Subansiri, Kamla, Siyum, Dibang, Lohit, Noa - Dihing, Kamlang, Tirap.The population of Arunachal Pradesh is 10, 97,968 (according to 2001 census). The state has the lowest density of 13 persons per sq. km. The sex ratio of Arunachal Pradesh at 893 females to 1000 males, is lower than the national average of 933. Total literacy of the State rose to 44.24% from 41.59% in 1991. Arunachal Pradesh is considered as one of the worlds bio-diversity spots owing to the geographical diversity and corresponding climatic conditions and a wide variety of wild life flora and fauna. The land is mostly mountainous with the Himalayan range along the northern borders criss-crossed with ranges running north- south.

b) Agro and Sub Agro-Climatic Zones

Arunachal Pradesh lies in Eastern Himalayan zone of India. Arunachal Pradesh has four sub agro- climatic zones and four distinct agro-climatic zones and five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap.

c) Cropping Pattern

 

The soil and climatic condition of the state offers an ideal condition for the production of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. In the valleys and foothills, tropical fruits like pineapple, oranges and banana are produced, while in cold and high altitude areas, temperate fruits like apple, peach, plum, etc. are grown. Vegetables are grown in all areas, the plains, the foothills, in the valleys and on the high hills. Besides fruits and vegetables, there are vast potential for the cultivation of coffee and more tea in Arunachal Pradesh.

 

d)    Scope of Farm Mechanization :

Arunachal Pradesh with a massive 94% rural population, is the largest state in the North-East India. Consequently, the economy of the state is based of agriculture. Jhum cultivation and Terrace farming are the major patterns that the farmers employ to uplift agriculture in Arunachal Pradesh. Most of the agriculture operations are performed by using animate power sources. In Jhum cultivation only hand tools are used such as spade, khurpi, sickle, dibbler, daw, grass slasher etc. Lands are prepared by cutting down the shrubs/weeds with the help of Phwawrah or spade and sowing is done manually by dibbling. Out of 83,743 sq. km of agriculture land in Arunachal Pradesh, 1.10 lakh hectare is under Jhum cultivation and 90 lakh hectare under permanent cultivation. The topography and climate of Arunachal Pradesh is conducive for the cultivation of rice, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane and potatoes. Since most of the farm, operations in Arunachal Pradesh are done by manually or using animal power hence, there is great scope of selective mechanizing by introducing improved hand tools such as improved sickles, dibblers, weeders, etc. in order to reduce drudgery. The seed bed preparation operations should be mechanized by promoting animal/power tiller drawn equipment.

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1.2 Assam

 

a) General Information:

 

The gateway to the North-East, Assam is one of the oldest state of India known for scenic beauty, as a land of blue hills and beautiful rivers. Assam lies beneath the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas and is bounded on the North West by Bhutan and to the North and North East and South East are bounded by east Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Manipur, to the south by Mizoram and Meghalaya and to the west by Bangladesh and Tripura.

 

Assam, extending from 890 42I E longitude to 960 E longitude and 240 8I N latitudes to 280 2I N latitudes in the gratitude is a North Eastern state of India. Assam is located at the central part of the North-East India with an area of 78,438 sq km (having 20% hilly region). Its total population is 2,66,38,407 out of which 1,37,87,799 are males and 12850,608 are females. The minimum temperature ranges from 60 to 80. The maximum temperature varies from 350 to 380 C which may further be reduced to even lower temperature due to frequent rains.

 

b) Agro and Sub Agro-Climatic Zones

 

Assam lies in Eastern Himalayan zone of India, and it has five sub agro- climatic zones. Paddy, Tea, Banana, Orange, Potato, Lemon, Coconut, Arcanuts and other vegetables are grown across the state in all the five agro-climatic zones. Apart from this, fruits like mango, guava, litchi, pineapple and jackfruit are grown in the central and upper Brahmaputra valley zone whereas in the lower Brahmaputra valley and the Barak valley zones Arcanut production finds prominent place. 

 

The state is composed of plains and river valleys. It can be divided into three principal regions:

1. The Brahmaputra valley in the north

2. The Barak valley in the south and

3. The Cachar hills that divide these two regions. 

 


c) Cropping Pattern:

 

Out of 78,438 sq km area of the Assam only 39,88,600 ha area is under cultivation. There are two distinct seasons, kharif (July to October), and rabi (October to March).The zone is ideally suitable for growing Paddy horticultural crops viz. Mango, jack fruit, guava, banana, litchi, citrus; papaya, pears, bear, vegetables, potato and tomato. Tea is the most important non-food crop of the Assam and contributes significantly to its economy.

 

d) Scope of Farm Mechanization:

 

The total farm power available in the state is 0.75 HP/ha. Most of the agriculture operations are performed by using animate power sources. The stationery farm power sources, viz; irrigation pump and electric motor are commonly used in irrigated area and use of mechanical mobile farm power sources is negligible.

 

The availability of human power is 0.375 kW/ha., animal power 0.525 kW/ha and mechanical power is 0.20 kW/ha. Since most of the farm operations in Assam are done using animal power, hence, there is great scope of selective mechanizing in Assam where, small hand tools are used involving drudgery. The seed bed preparation operations should be mechanized by promoting animal drawn equipment. For land preparation in Assam cultivators are being used generally. While there is great scope of introducing improved tractor drawn land preparation implements like; M.B. plough, Disc plough, Rotavator, etc. and improved sickle for harvesting and tubular maize sheller for shelling. For irrigated areas animal drawn M.B. Plough, disc harrow, animal drawn Bakhar Blade, animal drawn Puddler, animal drawn three tyne cultivator; for sowing, animal drawn seed cum fertilizer and tractor drawn Potato Planter and Digger cum Elevator, Zero-till drill, Strip-till drill, Vegetable transplanter; for spraying medicine, Aero-blast sprayer, for harvesting, Potato harvester, Self-propelled vertical conveyor reaper; for threshing Multi-crop, thresher etc. needs to be promoted in the state.

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1.3 Manipur

 

a) General Information

 

In 1972 the Government of India conferred the status of a state to Manipur. Situated between latitudes 23.80oN to 25.68oN and longitudes 93.03oE to 94.78oE, Manipur covers a total geographical area of 22,327 Sq. Km. Of the total area, about nine-tenths constitute the hills which surrounds the remaining one-tenth valley. Manipur has a population of 2,388,634. Of this total population, 58.9% live in the valley and the remaining 41.1% in the hilly region. The average annual rainfall on the plaetau and sub-plaetau region is 1,881mm. It is one of the border States in the North-Eastern part of India, bounded by Nagaland on the north, Assam on the west and Mizoram on the south and along the east it shares a 398 Km long international boundary with Myanmar. Main food grains crops are paddy, wheat, maize and pulses.

 

b) Agro and sub agro-climatic zones

 

Manipur lies in Eastern Himalayan zone of India. In this zone most of the area is covered by heavy terrain where methods of cultivation is different from the plain area.

 

c) Cropping Pattern

 

Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Manipur and only 7.41 % area is under cultivation. The zone is ideally suitable for growing horticultural crops viz. Mango, Jack Fruit, Guava, Banana, Litchi, Citrus; Papaya, Pears, vegetables, potato and tomato, Spices, Root & Tuber crops, Aromatic & Medicinal plants, etc. Fruits like- Banana, Pineapple and Citrus etc. take a major share in area and production. Among the vegetables, brinjal, tomato, chillies, Cabbage, cauliflower and capsicum hold great promise. Besides these crops, Mushroom, Root & Tuber crops are also grown.

 

d) Scope of Farm Mechanization:

 

The total farm power available in the state is 1.044 kW/ha. Most of the agricultural operations are performed by using animate power sources. The stationery farm power sources, viz irrigation pump and electric motor are commonly used in irrigated area and use of mechanical mobile farm power sources is negligible. The availability of human power shares 27% of total power , animal power 71% and mechanical power 1.9%. Since, most of the farm operations in Manipur are done by using animal and human power, hence, there is great scope of selective mechanizing in the state, where, small hand tools are being used resulting in human drudgery. The seed bed preparation operations should be mechanized by promoting animal drawn equipment. Improved animal drawn and manual operated equipment like- M.B. plough, ridger, blade harrow, puddler, leveller, improved sickle, zero tillage seed drill, tubuler maize sheller, rotary maize sheller may be introduced in Manipur. Population of Power tiller may be increased in plain area. Hand tools may be popularized as gender friendly equipment for weeding, cleaning, etc. Pedal operated thresher may be popularized in hill area for threshing paddy. Potato Planter, zero-till drill, strip-till drill, vegetable transplanter, aero-blast sprayer, potato planter, potato harvester, self-propelled reaper, multi-crop thresher etc should be promoted in the state for plain area.

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1.4 Meghalaya

a)    General Information:

Meghalaya emerged as a full-fledged state within the union of India on 21st Jan., 1972.Meghalaya is endowed with a rich variety of flora and fauna. The state basically has an agrarian economy with 80 percent of its total population dependent primarily on agriculture for livelihood. It is situated between latitude 25 30' N and longitude 91 00' E. Meghalaya is situated in the North-Eastern part of India with 22429 sq. kms area and has a long international border with Bangladesh to the south-west. Assam to the north- east. The temperature range is approximately 2 degree centigrade to 36 degree centigrade depending upon the altitude ranging between 300 mts above mean sea level (MSL) to 2000 mts above MSL.The state presents a paradox of containing in it the station with the highest mean annual rainfall in the world (Cherrapunji). The total population of the state is 23,06,069 where Males - 11,67,840 and Females - 11,38,229.

 

b) Agro and Sub Agro-Climatic Zones

 

Meghalaya lies in Eastern Himalayan zone of India. The state has vast potential for developing horticulture due to agro-climatic variations, which offer much scope for the cultivation of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical fruits and vegetables.

 

c) Cropping Pattern

Besides the major food crops of rice and maize, Meghalaya is known for its oranges (Khasi Mandarin), pineapple, banana, jackfruits, temperate fruits like plums, peaches and pears etc. The popular cash crops, which are traditionally cultivated, include turmeric, ginger, black pepper, areca nut.  Strawberry, flowers, etc. are grown commerciality. Temperate zones of Meghalaya face climatic barriers against agricultural growth. High soil erosion also reduces fertility.

 

d)    Scope of Farm Mechanization :

Most of the agriculture operations are performed by using animate power sources. Traditional tool and equipments are common in the field of agriculture, despite of vast scope of improved gender friendly hand tools for hilly region. The economy of the state is based on agriculture. Jhum cultivation and Terrace farming are the major patterns that the farmers employ to uplift agriculture in Meghalaya. In Jhum cultivation only hand tools are used such as spade, khurpi, sickle, dibbler, daw,grass slacer etc. Lands are prepared by cutting down with the help of fawrah or spade and sowing is done manually by dibbling. The average size of land holding of Meghalaya is 1.33 ha. and irrigate crop area is 22.1% ha. The available farm power in Meghalaya is 1.072 kw/ha against the required power 2.5 kw/ha. Share of Power in national level is Mechanical Power-3%, Bullock Power-73%, Human Power-24%, Electrical Power- 0.07%.

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1.5 Mizoram

 

a)    General Information:

Mizoram emerged as a full-fledged state within the union of India in the year 1986. Mizoram State lies between 2158N and 2435 N Latitudes and 9215E and 93 29 E Longitudes. It is located in the North-Eastern region of India, bordering Myanmar in the east and Bangladesh in the west. According to the 2001 census, total population of Mizoram was 8,91,058. The number of females per 1000 males in 2001 was 938 as against 933 National level. The States topography is, by and large, mountainous with precipitous slopes forming deep gorges culminating into several streams.   It is generally cool in summer and not very cold in winter. The temperature varies between 20C and 30C during summer and between 11C and 21C in winter. Rain fall in the state varies between 1900 mm and 3000 mm.

Agriculture in Mizoram is the primary sector of the state's economy. Although, the rugged terrains are not very conducive to the cultivation of crops, the even distribution of land, the fertile temperate soil facilitates extensive jhum cultivation. A number of crops like paddy, beans, cucumber, maize, arum, sesame, mustard and cotton are grown by practicing jhum or shifting cultivation.

b) Agro and Sub Agro-Climatic Zones

Mizoram lies in Eastern Himalayan zone of India. The States topography is, by and large, mountainous with precipitous slopes forming deep gorges culminating into several streams and rivers. 

c) Cropping Pattern:

Paddy is one of the most important crops that is cultivated in the state of Mizoram. Paddy is harvested using primitive methods. After harvesting of paddy, the seeds are spread on the round and threshed by trampling method. Threshers are not being used for threshing. Besides paddy, crops like sugarcane, cotton, tapioca, oilseeds, mustard, sesame, soybean and pulses like cowpea, french and rice beans also contribute towards the economy of Mizoram. Horticulture also adds substantially to the state's economy. There are a couple of imminent irrigation projects that are coming up in Mat valley, Champhai and North Vanlaiphai.

d) Scope of Farm Mechanization:

The average size of land holding is 1.29 ha. The irrigated crop area in Mizoram is 14 % and present available power is 0.576 kw/ha against required power 2.0 kw/ha. In national level sharing of mechanical power in the field of agriculture is 2.16 % and bullock power is 45 %. The present data of tractor density in Mizoram is 1.41 per 1000 ha. These data indicates that, most of the agriculture operations are performed by using animate power sources. The stationary farm power sources, viz irrigation pump and electric motor are commonly used in irrigated area and use of mechanical mobile farm power sources is negligible. Since, most of the farm operations in Mizoram are done by using animal power hence, there is a great scope of selective mechanizing in all over the state where, small hand tools are being used resulting in human drudgery. The seed bed preparation operations should be mechanized by promoting animal drawn equipment. Disc harrow and improved blade harrow are used for land preparation and improved sickle for harvesting and tubular maize sheller for shelling. For irrigated areas animal drawn M.B. Plough, disc harrow. animal drawn Bakhar Blade, Puddler, manual rice seeder, animal drawn three tyne cultivator, animal drawn seed cum fertilizer and animal drawn Potato Planter, zero-till drill, strip-till drill, vegetable transplanter, aero-blast sprayer, potato planter, potato harvester, self-propelled reaper, multi-crop thresher, etc should be promoted in the state.

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1.6 Nagaland

 

a) General Information:

 

In January 1961 the Government of India conferred the status of a state to Nagaland, but, the state of Nagaland was officially inaugurated on December 1st, 1963. Nagaland is a vibrant hill state located in the extreme North Eastern end of India, bounded by Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east and Manipur to the south. It lies at 930020I E to 95 015I E longitude and  250 6I N to 260 4I N latitude. The population of Nagaland is 1.99 million according to 2001 census. The sex ratio of Nagaland, 900 females to 1000 males is lower than the national average of 933. The state of Nagaland has an area of 16579 sq. km making it as one of the smallest states of India. Annual rainfall varies from 1,8002,500 mm, concentrated in the months of May to September. Temperatures range from 21 C to 40 C. Agriculture in Nagaland is considered a prime source of revenue for the state. The crops that give high yield in the state of Nagaland include rice, tobacco, oilseeds, pulses, fibers, potato and sugarcane.

 

b) Agro and sub agro-climatic zones

 

Nagaland lies in Eastern Himalayan zone of India. In this zone most of the area is covered by hilly difficult terrain where methods of cultivation are different from the plain area.

 

c) Cropping Pattern

 

Out of the net area of 16,579 sq. km, only 20 % is occupied by paddy cultivation in Nagaland. The zone is ideally suitable for growing crops like coffee, tea and cardamom. Potato and sugarcane are the two prime cash crops that generate revenue for the Nagaland economy. Many vegetables are grown by the peasants of Nagaland such as, carrots, chillies, onion, melon, spinach leaf, cucumber, brinjal, tomatoes and mustard.

 

d)    Scope of Farm Mechanization:

 

The total farm power available in the state is 0.336 kW/ha against required power 1.5 kW/ha. Most of the agriculture operations are performed by using animate power sources. The stationary farm power sources, viz irrigation pump and electric motor are commonly used in irrigated area and use of mechanical mobile farm power sources is negligible. The availability of human power is 53.1 %., animal power 45.9 % and mechanical power is 1.0 %. Since most of the farm operations in Nagaland are done using animal power hence, there is great scope of selective mechanizing in the tribal belt where small hand tools are being used resulting in human drudgery. The seed bed preparation operations should be mechanized by promoting animal drawn equipment as well as power operated implements. Ridger plough, disc harrow and improved bakhar blade may be introduced for land preparation and improved sickle for harvesting and tubular maize sheller for shelling. In irrigated areas, animal drawn M.B. Plough, disc harrow. Animal drawn ridger, animal drawn Blade harrow, animal drawn puddler, manual rice transplanter, manual rice seeder, animal drawn three tyne cultivator, animal drawn seed cum fertilizer and Potato Planter, zero-till drill, strip-till drill, vegetable transplanter, aero-blast sprayer, potato planter, potato harvester, self-propelled vertical conveyor reaper, multi-crop thresher etc should be promoted in the state.

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1.7 Tripura

 

a) General Information:

 

Tripura was given the status of a separate state of the Indian Union on 21st, January 1972. Tripura is the third smallest state of the country. The state extends between 22 56' N & 24 32' N and 90 09' E & 92 10' E. The amount of total annual rainfall in the state varies between 1500 mm to 2500 mm. The maximum and minimum temperatures during winter are 270 C and 130 C and during summer are 350 C and 240C, respectively. The population of Tripura is 3.20 million and sex ratio is 948 male against 933 female. Tripura is surrounded by Bangladesh on the north, west and east. The Indian states of Assam and Mizoram lie to the east of Tripura. The major crops grown in the state are: rice, ragi, jowar, maize, and pulses besides oilseeds and number of cash crops. Cashew, coconut, areca nut, cardamom, chilies, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco are among the other crops produced in the state.

 

b) Agro and Sub Agro-Climatic Zones

 

The ICAR has categorized the Tripura under Agro climatic zones of Humid Eastern Himalayan Region. The State of Tripura enjoys a typical monsoon climate with variations ranging from Sub-tropical to temperate conditions in hilly areas.

 

c) Cropping Pattern

The economy of Tripura is primarily agrarian. The primary sector i.e. Agricultural contributes about 64% of total employment in the state and about 48% of the State Domestic Product (SDP). A variety of Horticultural/ Plantation Crops are produced in Tripura like Pineapple, Oranges, Cashewnut, Jackfruit, Coconut, Tea, Rubber, Forest , Plantations etc. There is ample scope for increasing the area under such plantations as well as the productivity.

 

d) Scope of Farm Mechanisation:

 

The total farm power available in the state is 0.99hp/ha which is quite low as compared to the national average. As the farm power is limited, most of the agricultural operations are performed by using animate power source. Engine and electric motors are rarely used in irrigated area as a source of power. Since most of the farm operation are done using manual power and in the hilly region by conventional hand tools, there is a great scope of using improved type of hand tools in the field of agriculture. The major crops grown in the state are: rice, ragi, jowar, maize, and pulses besides oilseeds and number of cash crops. Cashew, coconut, areca nut, cardamom, chilies, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco are among the other crops produced in the state. The seed bed operation should be mechanized by introducing small size tractor and power tiller as a source of farm power. For sowing seed, improved type of seed drill and zero tillage seed drill may be used. For harvesting of paddy, self propelled reapers and for threshing multi-crop thresher may be introduced. In the hilly region, pedal operated thresher may be used. Harvesting of coconut and areca nut may be mechanized by introducing coconut harvester (climber). For irrigated area animal drawn M.B. Plough, disc harrow, bullock drawn puddler, paddy seeder may be used. As potato is one of the major crop in this area, potato cultivation should be mechanized by introducing potato planter, potato digger cum elevator.

 

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